Perennial lupine - when to plant seedlings
- What does lupine look like?
- History and interesting facts
- Varieties of perennial lupine
- Care features
- Features of winter care
- When lupines bloom
- How lupins breed
- Possible problems in growing lupine
- Use in landscape design
Lupine is a flower that belongs to the legume family. The culture, depending on the variety, can belong to the category of annuals, herbaceous perennials, dwarf shrubs and shrubs. Owners of private houses prefer perennial varieties of wolf bean, which are distinguished by their unpretentiousness and abundant flowering.
What does lupine look like?
The root system of a member of the legume family is endowed with a core structure. The roots, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, are able to penetrate into the ground to a depth of 150-200 cm. The stems of the plant are abundantly covered with foliage. The branches of an ornamental culture grow upward. The leaf plates have elongated outlines. Inflorescences are collected in lush multi-flowered brushes.
Lupine flowers, which can also be called a wolf bean, can be colored in different tones:
- orange tones.
A single bracts are prone to early abscission. Beans ripen alternately inside the rounded seeds.
History and interesting facts
Flowers translated from Latin mean a proud predator of the wolf. The homeland of decorative culture is the territory of North America. The history of culture dates back to the times of Ancient Greece. Since ancient times, wild lupine inflorescences have been used to decorate the tombs of the pharaohs. At first, lupine was ruthlessly removed from the fields, but gradually, as hybrid varieties of wolf bean spread, it began to be used for decorative purposes.
It is worth highlighting the special contribution of the famous breeder Russell, thanks to which the world saw such varieties:
- Mine Schloss;
- Burg Fraulin.
Lupine not only has an amazing appearance, but also useful properties. Flowers contain a high percentage of protein and protein. The presence of a tap root system, reaching a depth of 2 m, makes it possible to loosen the soil well. Small bulges on the root system help absorb nitrogen and enrich the soil.
Varieties of perennial lupine
Among the most common types of wolf pods, there are four of the most popular.
This flower is capable of self-pollination. The height of the bushes reaches 180-200 cm. The straight stems are pubescent, and flowers painted in white tones are located on thin inflorescences. The variety is resistant to prolonged dry periods.
This plant has sparse and hairy foliage. Gorgeous flowers, located on short stalks, are painted in yellow tones and endowed with a pleasant aroma. Seeds are slightly flattened along the lateral edges.
Reaches up to 110-140 cm in height, endowed by nature with pubescent foliage. Flowering begins in mid-July. Flowers can be colored blue, white or purple. The variety is resistant to frost.
This herbaceous type of wolf beans grows up to 90-145 cm. The leaf plates are palmate, separate and slightly pubescent on the underside. Large lupine flowers are painted in white, pink and lilac shades.
Planting and caring for perennial lupins is considered a fairly simple process. When choosing a place for planting lupines, you should give preference to sunny or barely shaded areas on the site. It is permissible to plant seeds of an ornamental crop near fruit trees.
Wolf beans grow well in almost any soil. However, it is best to give preference to loose, drained soil when planting wildflowers. In cases when it is planned to sow seeds on alkaline soil, it is worth taking care of the preliminary introduction of peat into the ground (5 kg will be required for each square meter). Compliance with this condition will avoid yellowing of the plants.
When planting lupine on acidic soil, it is recommended to take care of preliminary liming. For this purpose, you can use lime flour. Each square meter will require 5 kg of flour. Liming is carried out every 4 years.
In the first years after planting, a perennial does not require special care. It is only necessary to systematically deal with weeds and loosen the ground. With the onset of spring, top dressing is introduced into the soil:
- superphosphate - 15-20 g is enough for each square meter;
- potassium chloride - for 10 square meters, you need to take 45-50 g.
3 years after planting the seeds, it is important to inspect the root collars of the plants. They must not be allowed to rise above the ground surface. This can lead to the death of the decorative culture. In cases where the side sockets are separated, it is necessary to immediately start hilling the lupine.
When determining an irrigation schedule, it is important to consider the composition of the soil. The plant needs abundant soil moisture at the time of bud formation and immediately after planting.
Features of winter care
Despite the high level of frost resistance, experienced flower growers recommend not neglecting the preparation of bushes for the winter cold.
- In the middle of autumn, some of the plants that protrude above the ground are cut off.
- The bushes are huddled so that the bare root collar is securely covered.
- The surface of the soil is covered with a layer of sawdust. The layer thickness should be within 5-7 cm.
When lupines bloom
The candle-like lupine bloom period begins in late May. You can admire the gorgeous flowers for only 3 weeks. Gradually, the brushes lose their decorative qualities, and below the seed ovary process begins.
The height of multi-flowered brushes can exceed 50 cm. Flowers are colored in white, yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, blue and blue shades. Breeders have bred varieties that, during the flowering period, delight flower growers with blue-white and white-pink flowers. The two-tone types of lupine are very popular.
How lupins breed
Flowers can be grown by seed and cuttings.
In the first year after planting lupine seeds, you will not be able to admire the gorgeous flowering.
Step-by-step planting process
- In the first weeks of October, dig up the area intended for planting seed. A small amount of superphosphate, sand and wood ash is introduced into the dug soil.
- In April, grooves are dug in the planting zone, the depth of which reaches 18-20 mm. It is worth leaving a distance of 40-55 cm between the grooves.
- Seeds are disinfected in a solution of a fungicidal agent. After drying, the seeds are placed in the grooves.
- After sprinkling the crops with a layer of soil, you can proceed to moistening the soil.The first shoots should be expected after 14-15 days.
- After the appearance of the second leaf on the bush, you can start diving the seedlings into a pre-selected zone. It is important to leave a distance between the bushes within 40-50 cm.
Step-by-step process of growing seedlings at home
- Before planting, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture consisting of sand, leafy soil and peat.
- Soil is poured into containers with a drainage layer, and grooves are pulled out with a depth of 18-20 mm. A small part of the peat is crushed from above.
- The containers with crops are covered with polyethylene material and sent to a warm room. After a couple of weeks, you can see the first shoots.
- As soon as 2-3 leaves appear on the seedlings, you can plant the plants in open ground.
Propagation by cuttings
How else can wildflowers be propagated? In the case when cuttings are carried out in the spring, the formation of the first inflorescences can be expected already this fall.
- Cuttings are harvested from the basal rosettes, which are formed from the growth buds. The shoots must be cut with root collars.
- For 14-15 days, the cut cuttings are placed in a well-moistened mixture, consisting of soil and river sand.
- As soon as new roots are formed, you can transfer containers with rooted cuttings to the balcony. After another week, it is necessary to plant the bushes in open ground. Do not keep seedlings in pots for a long time.
Possible problems in growing lupine
Lupins are susceptible to diseases and pests. Bushes often attack:
- sprout flies;
Very often, insect attacks begin during the flowering period. To preserve the plants, you need to use insecticides. It is necessary to process not only the bushes, but also the soil. The most effective insecticidal agents include:
Among the main ailments to which lupine is susceptible are:
- brown spot;
- powdery mildew;
- black rot.
The cause of diseases is fungal-type microorganisms that actively multiply in swampy soil. To prevent the occurrence of diseases, preference should be given when choosing a place for planting, sunny areas. Infected bushes must be removed immediately. The rest of the plantings are sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
Experts have developed a number of recommendations to grow wolf beans healthy and able to cope with any ailment:
- In the same place, perennial lupine can be sown no more than 1 time in 4 years.
- In between plantings of lupine, it is advisable to plant cereals.
- It is important to weed the bushes from weeds in a timely manner and carry out the treatment with desiccants during the period of prolonged autumn rains.
Use in landscape design
Lupins are amazing plants that will bring a touch of sophistication and originality to any flower garden. Landscape designers often use decorative culture, both in group and in single planting. Candle flowers are ideal for planting along lawns. The variety of color shades is an undoubted advantage.
Unpretentious plants called wolf bean will decorate any garden. Often, flower growers are interested in whether it is possible to put lupins at home? Plants can be grown not only outdoors, but also in pots. Why not plant these flowers on your balcony. The abundance of varieties will allow every grower to choose a decorative culture to their liking.